What is a camera?

A camera is a device that captures still images or videos. It works by focusing light through a lens and onto a sensor (or film, in older cameras).

Types of cameras

There’s a massive variety of cameras, but here are some of the most common types:

  • Digital Cameras: The most popular type today.
    1. DSLR Cameras: Professional-grade cameras with interchangeable lenses for maximum control of focus, depth of field, and image quality.
    2. Mirrorless Cameras: Similar to DSLRs in quality but use a different focusing system. They tend to be more compact.
    3. Point-and-shoot Cameras: Compact and easy to use, great for everyday snapshots.
    4. Action Cameras: Small, rugged cameras perfect for capturing sports and outdoor adventures.
  • Smartphone Cameras: Incredibly convenient and offer impressive quality. Many modern smartphones have multiple lenses for wide-angle shots, portraits, and more.
  • Film Cameras: Still used by enthusiasts. They offer a unique aesthetic and a more hands-on experience.

Key Camera Concepts :

  • Aperture: The opening in the lens that controls how much light enters. A wider aperture (lower f-number) results in a shallower depth of field (more blurry background).

    Shutter Speed: How long the sensor is exposed to light. A faster shutter speed can freeze motion while a slower one creates blur.

  • ISO: The sensor’s sensitivity to light. Higher ISO means brighter images in low light but can introduce noise.
  • Focal Length: The distance between the lens and sensor, measured in millimeters (mm). Affects the field of view (how much of a scene is captured) and zoom level. A wider focal length (e.g., 18mm) captures a wide scene, while a longer focal length (e.g., 200mm) zooms in.